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Title: France...Japan...and Japonism...in 19th century
Category: Painting
Who: Glinn

Date: 2006-09-25 21:11

Cover of Le Japon Artistique No1 May, 1888 in France

Japonism (in French Japonisme) is the term defining the relationship between the arts of Japan and Western civilisation. Japonaiserie marks a lower level of this meeting of civilisations, the direct transfer of principles of Japanese art on Western, primarily by French artists. Works originating from this source are correctly called japonesque.

While American intellectuals maintained that Edo prints were a vulgar art form, unique to the period and distinct from the refined, religious, national heritage of Japan known as Yamato-e (大和絵, pictures from the Yamato period, e.g. Zen masters Sesshu and Shubun), Ukiyo-e, Japanese wood-block prints, became a source of inspiration for Art Nouveau, cubism and many European impressionist painters in France.

During the Kaei era (1848 – 1854), many foreign merchant ships came to Japan. Following the Meiji restoration in 1868, Japan ended a long period of national isolation and became open to imports from the West, including photography and printing techniques and in turn, many Japanese ukiyo-e prints and other artworks came to Europe and America and soon gained popularity.

Japonism started with the frenzy to collect Japanese art, particularly print art (ukiyoe), of which the first samples were to be seen in Paris. About 1856, the French artist Félix Bracquemond first came across a copy of Hokusai’s Manga sketchbooks in a Paris studio. The frenzy for all things Japanese was immediate. In 1871 Camille Saint-Saëns wrote a one-act opera, La princesse jaune to a libretto by Louis Gallet, in which a Dutch girl is jealous of her artist friend's fixation on an ukiyoe woodblock print. French collectors, writers, and art critics undertook many voyages to Japan in the 1870s and 1880s, leading to the publication of articles about Japanese aesthetics and the increased distribution of prints in Europe, especially in France. Among them, the liberal economist Henri Cernuschi the critic Theodore Duret (both in 1871 – 1872), and the British collector William Anderson, who lived for some years in Edo and taught medicine. (Anderson's collection has been acquired by the British Museum.) Several Japanese art dealers subsequently resided in Paris, such as Tadamasa Hayashi and Jijima Hanjuro. The Paris Exposition Universelle of 1878 presented many pieces of Japanese art.

The above article is from "The free encyclopedia WIKIPEDIA"   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japonism

The below refers to "내가 만난 일본 미술이야기 - 안혜정, 아트북스"

Vincent Van Gogh, Portrait of Pere Tanguy, 1887~88

Vincent Van Gogh, Bandaged Ear, 1889

Edouard Manet, Emile Zola, 1868

Alfred Stevens, , 1888

Claude Monet, Japanese Lady, 1875

Claude Monet, Japanese Bridge, Water Lilies Pond

Georges Antoine Rochegrosse, Sarah Bernhardt, 1894

Marie-Francois Firmin-Girard, The Japanese Toilette. 1873

Pierre Auguste Renoir, Madame Charpentier and Her Children Paul (at her knee) and Georgette, 1878

Berthe Marie Pauline Morisot, Girl with Greyhound, 1893
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